Biomass: Starting with the Right Stuff

Cannabis and Hemp Biomass: Start with the Right Stuff

How to Identify Good Biomass for CBD and THC Extraction

In this chapter of The Ultimate Guide to Cannabis Extraction, you’ll learn what to look for when sourcing cannabis and hemp biomass to turn into various cannabinoid derivatives. You’ll also learn a little about the cannabis and hemp biomass markets, and what you can expect to pay for the raw plant material that you’ll transform into high value end-products.

Most cannabis connoisseurs focus their passion on the flowers produced by mature female cannabis and hemp plants. That’s because these plants produce the majority of their cannabinoids, like THC and CBD, in the central flower cluster that forms along the upper portion of the main stems and large branches in a mature, female cannabis plant.

Cannabinoids are produced by the trichomes that coat hemp or cannabis flowers. So if cannabinoids are your goal, the easiest place to find them is on the flower. But it’s not the only place.

Trichomes often coat the tiny protective leaves that are cut—or trimmed—away during the early stages of processing. Smaller trichomes can be found on stems, fan leaves, and more. They’re just smaller and not as pleasant to smoke. But that doesn’t mean they’re not valuable. Which brings us to biomass.

Chapter Contents:

  1. What does “Biomass” mean? A Definition
    1. Cannabis Biomass and Cannabinoids
  2. How to Identify ‘Good’ Cannabis and Hemp Biomass
    1. Biomass Constituents
    2. Trichome Density
    3. The Nose Knows
    4. Color
    5. Mold and Pests
    6. Test Often and Always!
  3. What is Hemp Biomass used for?
    1. Products you can make from hemp biomass.
    2. How much CBD does a pound of hemp make?
    3. Hemp Biomass Price 2020
  4. What is Cannabis Biomass used for?
    1. Products you can make from cannabis biomass.
    2. How much THC does a pound of cannabis make?
    3. Cannabis Biomass Price 2020
  5. The Economics of Choosing the Right Hemp Biomass:
    1. How do I sell hemp biomass?
    2. How much is hemp biomass worth?
    3. How much biomass does an acre of hemp produce?
    4. Is hemp farming profitable?

What does "Biomass" Mean? A Definition

Simple question, right? Well, terminology in the cannabis industry is not at all regulated. In fact, there are actually three different products that people mean when they refer to “biomass”:

  1. The first way the term biomass is used is to describe everything harvested from the cannabis or hemp plant. This includes the flower, fan leaves, stalks, seeds, trim, everything and anything that is cut from the living plant. This is much less work for growers, and they can use more conventional growing and harvesting methods.  They homogenize (blend together) the entire plant instead of separating out the high-cannabinoid flower to sell separately. This type of biomass is higher in cannabinoids due to the presence of the mature cannabis or hemp flower in the mix.
  2. The second way the term biomass is used is to describe everything that is harvested from the plant EXCEPT for the high-cannabinoid buds. This could be the stalks, fan leaves, trim, or any other part of the harvested plant not deemed high-quality enough to sell as a separate product. This type of biomass has a lower concentration of cannabinoids than the first, because it doesn’t contain the buds. You’ll need a lot more of this type than the first to extract the same gross amount of cannabinoids.
  3. A third type of biomass—fiber biomass—is the product of industrial hemp production. The hemp grown for this purpose is very tall and has very low cannabinoid content. The goal of cultivating this biomass is fiber production: paper, fabric, hempcrete, you name it. The taller stalks make for longer fibers—the better to make fabric with. You should not purchase this type of biomass if you’re intending to extract cannabinoids.

Cannabis Biomass and Cannabinoids

Biomass, in the first two instances above, contains desirable compounds such as cannabinoids and terpenes. These compounds can be extracted, though you need to process more plant material to produce a comparable amount of cannabinoids to extracts made with only flower. Many processors’ only goal is to extract CBD and/or THC, and biomass is perfect for these purposes.

The difference between the first two types of biomass comes down to the concentration of cannabinoids.

As the market gets more competitive, processors have looked to more cost-effective ways of producing bulk THC and CBD products—rather than the use of high-priced ‘buds’. This has most predominantly taken the form of purchasing and extracting the biomass that results from large-scale agriculture or is the byproduct of the smoke-able cannabis ‘flower’ industry.

Therefore, for most cannabis (and hemp) processors, when we discuss ‘good’ cannabis, we are really talking about ‘good’ biomass.

How to Identify ‘Good’ Cannabis and Hemp Biomass?

Many of the factors you’d consider when purchasing cannabis or hemp flower are the same you should consider when sourcing cannabis or hemp biomass. Your aim is to extract the highest quality cannabinoid derivatives that are possible from whatever you buy. But extraction isn’t magic. If you start with low-quality biomass, you’ll end up with low-quality product: it’s the old “crap in, crap out” or CICO formula.

1. Biomass Constituents

The exact make-up of the biomass you end up buying will depend on how it was grown and harvested, and what the grower considers to be biomass (see the three definitions of “biomass” above). Be sure to carefully examine the plant material before you buy it to figure out what’s in it: caveat emptor or “buyer beware” is critical in the cannabis industry.

You should also ask about how it was grown to make sure the growing practices are in line with your business (e.g. don’t buy biomass that was grown with synthetic fertilizers if you’re selling organic-like extracts). Information on harvest practices can clue you in to potential contaminants as well as what components form any specific lot of biomass.

Generally, biomass contains:

  • Trim/sugar leaves: the trichome-covered leaves that are trimmed off of cannabis and hemp flower to create a more beautiful bud and a smoother smoke.
  • Fan leaves: The iconic 5-7 lobed leaf that the plant uses to photosynthesize. Fan leaves constitute the majority of most biomass, and should be a deep green color.
  • Stalks and stems: The most fibrous part of the plant that colas and buds are trimmed away from. In biomass, these look like small pieces of chipped wood.

It sometimes also contains:

  • Cannabis/hemp flower (aka “buds”): some growers turn their entire fields into biomass, resulting in biomass with a much higher relative concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes.
  • B-buds: Even if growers separate out the larger buds that they can sell at a higher price, some will throw their smallest buds, known as “b-buds”, in with everything else in the mix.
  • Seeds: Seeds are relatively heavy, and don’t contain cannabinoids or terpenes. If the biomass you’re considering buying contains a high concentration of seeds, it’s worth considering other options. 

Almost every part of biomass has the potential to contain cannabinoids. Taking a close look at each of the constituents in a lot of biomass will tell you a lot about its value. Regardless of what constituents compose your biomass, the very first thing you should look for is trichomes.

Almost every part of biomass has the potential to contain cannabinoids. Taking a close look at each of the constituents in a lot of biomass will tell you a lot about its value. Regardless of what constituents compose your biomass, the very first thing you should look for is trichomes.

2. Trichome Density

Just like in cannabis and hemp flower, the magic of biomass is in the trichomes.

Trichomes are the tiny, hair-like outgrowths that cover cannabis and hemp flower. They’re what makes the flower look like it was dusted in sugar or sand. Trichomes produce the valuable cannabinoids and terpenes, like THC and CBD, that drive the cannabis and hemp markets.

Cannabis and hemp produce several types of trichomes. The most sought-after type, and the only one you can see with your naked eye, is the capitate-stalked trichome.

If you look at them with a magnifying glass they look like little mushrooms with a stalk and head. That head, the gland head, is where the majority of cannabinoids and trichomes are produced in cannabis.

There are, however, other types of trichomes produced by the cannabis plant. Bulbous trichomes and capitate-sessile trichomes are both invisible to the naked eye, but also produce cannabinoids. These trichomes are frequently found on less-desirable parts of the plant like fan leaves and stalks.

While the highest concentration of trichomes are found on the flower itself, they are also found in many other parts of the plant. Each plant has differing densities of trichomes on the flower, sugar leaves, fan leaves, and stalks. The more trichomes there are on the constituents of your cannabis or hemp biomass, the better.

Quality Trichomes: What to look for

Trichomes are incredibly fragile structures. The most valuable part of capitate-stalked trichomes is the cannabinoid- and terpene-rich gland head. The structure of these trichomes means that the head falls off easily during handling. So bring along a magnifying glass to make sure most of the heads are still there.

Remember, the trichome heads contain what you want to extract. So, unlike royalty in the French Revolution, look for intact heads. No trichome heads means no cannabinoids. No cannabinoids means low-quality derivatives.

3. The Nose Knows

Your nose can tell you a lot about the quality of the biomass you’re looking at. Especially if you’re interested in extracting the aromatic terpenes that give cannabis and hemp its distinctive scent, and are associated with the differing effects that the plants can have.

The highest quality and most prized forms of cannabis are actually most prized for their terpene content. There are many strains of cannabis that produce high levels of cannabinoids like THC and CBD, but terpene content is what causes the smell and taste of the bud that appeals to the consumer.

Researchers are also beginning to study how terpenes could contribute to the psychological effects, or high, that is recognizable from smoking high-grade cannabis flower. The terpene profile is what growers and connoisseurs fall in love with, and will inspire them to go back and grow that specific plant again and again.

However, these terpene compounds are very fragile. The reason you smell them so prominently is because their vapors are ‘boiling’ off the plant at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Due to this effect, old cannabis, or improperly dried and cured cannabis, will be devoid of a lot of terpenes and lose its complexity of smell and taste.

However, these terpene compounds are very fragile. The reason you smell them so prominently is because their vapors are ‘boiling’ off the plant at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Due to this effect, old cannabis, or improperly dried and cured cannabis, will be devoid of a lot of terpenes and lose its complexity of smell and taste.

Just like cannabinoids, terpenes are produced by trichomes. ‘Good’ and ‘dank’ smelling samples of cannabis (or hemp) biomass tell you two things:

  • The biomass is relatively fresh and has probably been stored, cured, and dried properly.
  • It’s probably more valuable, because the stronger the smell, the more terpenes are present in the biomass.

The biomass should smell dank, citrusy, floral, fruity, gassy, and/or chocolatey. If your biomass smells like grass, hay, pickles, or anything repugnant, consider what you’re interested in producing. These are signs of old and low quality cannabis which may not be suitable for cannabinoid extraction. However, even old stale cannabis or hemp may be useful for the production of cannabinol (CBN) so don’t be too quick to throw it out with the compost.

4. Color

Like any high-quality leafy plant, the color of your biomass should be a deep and vibrant green. Although some cannabis plants have lighter and darker greens, oranges, and purples, what you don’t want to see are yellows, browns, and whites. These colors indicate old, mishandled, burnt (chemical or solar), and/or improperly dried or cured cannabis.

The orange color you see in good cannabis are the stigmas, the hairs that come out of each individual cannabis flower to catch pollen. However, the buds and leaves should not be orange. Orange coloring on the leaves is the same as browning and usually indicates old, burnt, or very improperly dried material.

The popular major cannabinoids THC and CBD, while not as sensitive as terpenes, are still relatively delicate compounds. When biomass is brown or yellow and has been dried or stored improperly, it’s more likely that the THC and CBD has begun to degrade into other compounds such as CBN (although you may still use old biomass quite effectively for extracting CBN).

5. Mold and Pests

While you can use the previous four points to quickly assess the likely potency of the biomass, this final point is just as important, and allows you to assess the biomass for common contaminants such as mold and pests.

This is a vital step in assessing the quality of your biomass because pests and mold can lead to unusable product, or worse still, a product that makes people sick.

Luckily, it’s quite easy to notice the most common types of pest and mold. If you notice any of these, your biomass is probably sliding quickly from the ‘good’ range to the ‘terrible’ end of the spectrum.

  • Mealy bugs or aphids: Tiny insects that look like white or gray specs.
  • Spider mites and thrips: Spider mites are too small to see, but you may see their webs. Thrips are small, yellow, worm-like bugs. Both pests cause yellow and/or white specks all over the leaves. You can also look for bug droppings that look like small black specs.
  • Bud rot or mold: These are most often found on the stem of the cola, closest to the base, and in very dense buds. Often looks like a typical white or gray fuzzy mold.
  • Powdery Mildew: Leaves a white powdery, flour, like substance that can be found on the leaves and in the buds.

6. Test Often and Always!

Finally, you should always take a sample of any biomass you’re considering purchasing to an analytical lab for analysis. It is incredibly important to take a representative sample from any biomass you’re considering extracting, meaning several samples randomly pulled from throughout the entire lot. Send these samples to a third-party-certified lab to be evaluated for:

  • Cannabinoid content: Most labs that work with cannabis or hemp are legally obligated to test for THC and CBD. See what other cannabinoids your lab can test for, like CBN, CBG, or Δ8-THC. Minor cannabinoids have burgeoning market appeal and are absolutely worth testing for.
  • Terpene content: Most labs don’t include terpene testing in their basic panels. But adding this option means you’ll have a better idea of what terpene-enriched products you can create. Mimicking the terpene profile of a popular strain
  • Pesticides: Many states have strict laws regarding what levels, if any, of pesticides are allowed in hemp or cannabis. Honestly? The lower the better. Contaminants in the biomass are exponentially concentrated when you extract. So be very wary of any pesticides detected. It’s much harder to remove pesticides from your final end products than avoiding it in the first place by purchasing pesticide-free biomass.
  • Heavy metals: Heavy metals testing regulations vary from state to state. Cannabis is a bio accumulator, which means it easily sucks up any heavy metals present in the soil. Testing for them means keeping your customers healthy, which is always a boon in the wellness industry.
  • Microbials: This is an indication of any mold or bacterial activity in your sample. However, not every state tests for microbials, some test for water activity level instead (higher water activity levels are more advantageous for mold growth).

Learn to read a Certificate of Analysis, commonly referred to as a CoA, before you send off your first sample. This document details all of the test results from your sample. If you have questions, ask your lab to explain. Being able to fully interpret the results means smarter buying decisions.

  • It’s important to know what your lab’s margin of error is—especially if you’re extracting for the hemp market. Hemp-derived CBD products must not contain more than 0.3% THC, or they are considered in violation of the law and could be seized (and you could be fined!).
  • It’s also important to know what your lab uses as a Limit of Quantitation, or LoQ, for each of the compounds they test for. LoQs are the limit below which your lab will not report the content of a certain compound. And they’re set arbitrarily. So make sure the LoQs seem reasonable for you, e.g. making sure the LoQ for THC is lower than 0.3% so that you can accurately guess what your final extracted product will contain.

All of these factors need to be carefully weighed against your extraction costs. If you buy biomass that has too low of a cannabinoid content, for example, you could spend more on extracting all of that material than just buying biomass with a higher cannabinoid content. Ultimately, you need to make sure you know how much your processing costs are before deciding on any particular biomass.

What is Hemp Biomass used for?

Obviously, before you purchase hemp biomass, you should know what you want to make with it. And the answer to that question will arise from careful market research so that you can confidently decide on your target product. This decision will in turn help you narrow down your choices when looking for high-quality hemp biomass.

If, for example, you’re going to churn out cannabinoid isolates such as CBD isolate, you can use mid-to-lower quality biomass.  Though it’s worth doing a cost-benefit analysis due to the increased amount of labor it is to process large amounts of lower-cannabinoid biomass. In short, do your homework to maximize your chances of success.

What products can you make from hemp biomass?

  • “Crude” oil is the first product you extract from hemp or cannabis biomass in any extraction process. While rich in cannabinoids and terpenes, it also has undesirable compounds like plant waxes and chlorophyll. While crude is usually refined into other forms of cannabinoid derivatives, it can be sold as-is to companies interested in doing their own refining into various derivatives. Read more about what you can turn crude into here.
  • CBD Distillate is a common derivative produced by hemp and is the next step between crude extracts and isolates.
  • Isolates: One of the cannabinoid derivatives that can be created from crude oil is an Even biomass that is low in cannabinoids and terpenes can be used to make isolates. Isolates are purified forms of cannabinoids, like THC and CBD, so it doesn’t really matter what else is going on in the source material because you’re not interested in keeping terpene flavor profiles—though you should still avoid chemical and environmental contaminants. Isolates are highly sought after to add to goods like edibles, topicals and may be an ideal revenue generator to sell wholesale.
  • Post-extraction hemp biomass: What do you do with all of the plant material when you’re done? Well, you could throw it away, or you could try to plug into local efforts to make hempcrete, animal feed, or fuel for a biomass generator.

How much CBD does a pound of hemp make?

The amount of CBD you can extract from a pound of hemp biomass varies based on the percentage of CBD in the original starting material. This is why it’s so important to test your plant material before purchasing.

It’s also important to note that different extraction methods will range in efficiencies. A range of 50-85% of total cannabinoids accounted for in end product is an ideal range of efficiencies across different methods.

For example, if you take one pound (~453.6g) of hemp biomass that contains 15% CBD and extract it perfectly, you will end up with ~68 grams (~2 oz) of purified, isolated CBD (minus any losses from the extraction process). Your exact final output depends on what you put in and how well you extract it.

Some approximate estimations for different percentages:

  • 3% CBD in 1 lb of hemp biomass = ~13 grams CBD
  • 5% CBD in 1 lb of hemp biomass = ~22 grams CBD
  • 10% CBD in 1 lb of hemp biomass = ~45 grams CBD
  • 15% CBD in 1 lb of hemp biomass = ~68 grams CBD

Hemp Biomass Price in 2020

There is an upside to the currently supersaturated hemp market: extraordinarily low hemp biomass prices.

From April 2019 to August 2020, the aggregate price per pound of hemp CBD biomass dropped from $38 to $8.10 per pound. While the crashing price of hemp biomass could put some hemp growers out of business, there is some indication that hemp biomass prices have stabilized.

Lest you fear the low prices will force you to lower the price of your derivatives, the price of isolate, distillate, and crude have remained relatively stable. That stability could be due to the huge increase in hemp and cannabis product sales associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and/or new states legalizing medical and/or adult use.

What is Cannabis Biomass Used For?

Cannabis biomass is essentially the same as hemp biomass—they are the same plant after all. The only difference is that cannabis biomass contains >0.3% THC by weight. That said, cannabis biomass is still federally illegal, and each state regulates cannabis in a unique way. Make sure to familiarize yourself with your state’s cannabis laws before growing, buying, or selling cannabis biomass.

Products you can make from cannabis biomass.

Cannabis biomass can be used to make a wide variety of products. Generally, cannabis biomass is used as material for extraction. This means that cannabis biomass can be used as the starting material for anything that is made using cannabis extracts. Some of the products you can make from cannabis biomass are:

  1. Crude oil: particularly from a warm ethanol extract, from cannabis (popularized as Rick Simpson Oil) is perhaps the most ‘full spectrum’ extract available on the market. It’s rich in cannabinoids and terpenes, as well as undesirable plant waxes and chlorophyll. It’s often used for edibles and tinctures. Most extractors further refine crude oil into other cannabinoid derivatives, though some do find a market for unrefined crude oil.
  2. Distillate – the next step between crude extracts and isolates and is most efficiently produced by ethanol extraction
  3. Live resin extracts primarily intended for dabbing or vape cartridges are produced by hydrocarbon and/or solventless extraction methods most commonly and efficiently.

How much THC does a pound of cannabis make?

The amount of THC that can be extracted from a pound of cannabis or cannabis biomass varies widely based on the quality of the starting material and extraction method. You can estimate how much THC is in your starting material using a little simple math:

  • (Percentage of THC listed on the Certificate of Analysis) x (454g) = grams of THC in a pound of cannabis

It’s also important to note that extraction methods will range in efficiencies. A range of 50-85% of total cannabinoids accounted for in end product is an ideal range of efficiencies across various different extraction methods.

A pound is roughly 454 grams. By multiplying the percentage of THC by the gram amount of a pound of cannabis, you’ll end up with a good approximation of how many grams of THC there would be in a perfect extraction. For example:

  • 3% THC in 1 lb of cannabis biomass = ~13 grams THC
  • 5% THC in 1 lb of cannabis biomass = ~22 grams THC
  • 10% THC in 1 lb of cannabis biomass = ~45 grams THC
  • 15% THC in 1 lb of cannabis biomass = ~68 grams THC

What is the Cannabis Biomass Price in 2020?

Cannabis biomass prices vary widely based on location and quality. You can only buy cannabis biomass in states where cannabis is legal, and you should expect to pay much more for cannabis biomass than hemp biomass. In general, the higher the level of THC in the cannabis biomass, the higher the price.

Cannabis biomass is most often in the form of trim—the trimmed off parts of the cannabis flower. This is because, somewhat unlike hemp, the cured and trimmed buds of the cannabis plant themselves fetch a much higher price alone. So most cannabis extractors are in the market of extracting trim and not flower.

Because each adult-use state has a specialized regulatory environment, there is no standard for cannabis biomass prices.  In Oregon in February 2020, trim prices averaged $150-200/lb, but averaged $500/lb for high-quality tested trim. As of October 2020 in Colorado, cannabis trim averaged $350/lb.

Cannabis trim prices fluctuate widely depending on your state and its local market. Legislation and quality impact price, so you’ll need to do some research in your area to figure out what a good price is for you.

The Economics of Choosing the Right Biomass

Choosing the right starting material is critical. When the CBD zeitgeist arrived tens of thousands of enterprising people were eager to get in on the next big thing. After the Farm Bill of 2018 legalized hemp, there was a massive boom of interest. And a consequent bust in hemp prices across the globe. Timing is everything and so is the challenge of finding the right biomass.

How do growers sell hemp biomass?

Hemp growers have a few options when figuring out how to sell their hemp biomass. A lot depends on what the chemical constituents of their product is. They can charge more for biomass that has higher levels of CBD or up-and-coming minor cannabinoids like CBG (cannabigerol).

In order to determine what they’re selling, growers will have to get their biomass tested. Asking to view their test results is an excellent first step for a buyer, but you should also insist on getting the biomass tested at your lab (and at your expense).

Here are some ways that hemp growers sell their biomass:

  • Pre-selling: Growers can lock in a good price this way, and not risk product going to waste by securing purchases before they even plant their fields. This could be advantageous for buyers, who might be able to get a lower price, but only if the biomass ends up with a decent cannabinoid content. If you’re thinking of pre-buying, make sure to review prior test results from the grower, and consider adding a clause to your contract to protect yourself from buying bunk biomass.
  • Hemp broker: There are people whose whole job is connecting interested buyers to growers selling hemp biomass. Hemp brokers do take a commission from the sale, so this is a better option for growers and extractors that are a bit more established in their businesses and don’t have time to negotiate themselves.
  • Direct sales: The most traditional method of selling. Growers utilize their networks to find an interested buyer after harvesting their hemp biomass.
  • Profit-sharing: This model is used by growers who may not be able to cover the upfront costs of purchasing hemp seed and the equipment necessary to grow it. The buyer covers the upfront cost of the hemp, and
  • Futures contracts: This guarantees the sale of a crop before it’s even planted, generally for a lower price than it would fetch on the open market. 

There are other methods that growers use to sell their biomass—hemp trade shows, online marketplaces, and social media sites like LinkedIn and Instagram have all been used as platforms to attract buyers. As the market becomes more and more saturated, people are getting creative with their sales efforts. So it’s worth taking a look around and seeing if there’s anything that catches your eye.

How much is hemp biomass worth?

According to Hemp Benchmark‘s January 2020 report, hemp biomass generally sells for ~$1.31/lb per percentage point of CBD. That said, the price can vary greatly depending on what the chemical make-up is worth. It can be as low as $7/lb or as high as $41/pound, depending on the quality. Generally, the higher the CBD percentage, the higher the cost.

How much biomass does an acre of hemp produce?

The total amount of hemp biomass and acre of hemp can produce is highly variable. One of the biggest factors is whether or not the hemp is allowed to go to seed. Seeds greatly increase the total weight in hemp biomass but are undesirable for extracting as they contain no valuable cannabinoids or terpenes.

For low-seed hemp, an acre of land can produce between 1400 and 3500 pounds of hemp, depending on the variety of hemp planted, growing practices, and climate. Those number double for hemp biomass allowed to go to seed. You don’t want to pay premium prices for product that won’t help your bottom line, so carefully check hemp biomass for seeds before purchasing.

Is hemp farming profitable?

The billion-dollar question. Since 2018, the number of hemp growers in the US alone has increased by 476% to 21,496 licensed growers. That sort of growth, and the inexperience of many of these new hemp growers, means a tight bottom line.

Hemp farming, like any business, is only profitable for people who know how to run a business. Growers need to carefully evaluate start-up costs, maintenance, and infrastructure development before they begin planting, and make sure that their overall costs don’t exceed what they are likely to make by selling hemp.

In Summary: Identifying good biomass for CBD and THC extraction

If you have skilled extractors and best-in-breed extraction equipment and technologies, extracting cannabinoids isn’t magic. In order to produce a high-quality output, you need to start with high-quality input. You may have heard the old adage “crap in, crap out”, this is always true for any form of cannabis or hemp extraction. If you start with high quality biomass you increase your chances of a high quality end product that will be in demand in the marketplace.

So before you buy cannabis or hemp biomass, be sure to check its quality, and insist on third-party lab testing from a homogenized sample. If everything looks good, you’re ready to move on to the extraction process.